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iCerMax™ Ceramic Medium
Bulk Tank Filtration
Equipment Filtration
Kidney Filtration
Industrial Filtration
Independant Tests
Benefits of Filtration
Gauge Filtration Monitoring
Contaminant Unloading
Algae and Bacteria in Bousers
Prevent Fuel Siphoning/tag theft

Reduce Contamination

The material increase in lubricity and reduction of carbon with the use of iFleet fuel catalyst is a huge step in the right direction to extend injector life. Combining this with effective filtration at the required micron level is a proven winner.

There exist misalignments in the market place, as most modern engines are fitted with final filtration of 10 to 5 micron and the injector clearances are less than 2 micron.

Contamination occurs in various forms and mediums. The smaller the particle size, the greater the degree of contamination. The amount of sub 5 micron contamination increases exponentially in any volume of diesel in relation to 5 micron and larger particles.

Ceramic filter media for fuel with vast dirt holding capacity - MechTech/May 2008
Ceramics to the rescue: Fleetwatch - Paul Collins on iFleet
SA firm patents new all-embracing filtation technology

Contamination blue print for fuel conservation

iFleet water Filter - automated pressure & coalesce water separators/filtration
iFleet Air breather - range for oil and Fuel too effectively reduce water and particle removal
iFleet Fuel Kidney - recirculating filtration systems for fuel bousers and genset

iFleet Depth filtration - ceramic media

Setting a new benchmark for cost effective, sustainable cleanliness levels.
Depth filtration with no water problem, no channel formation, and no media collapse.
Providing unequalled dirtholding capacity, low differential pressure and astonishing micron rating.
Separating clogging of hydrocarbons (agglomerations) and therefore reversing the natural deterioration process

Applications in any Medium: air, gas & liquid with any flow rates, pressures (high or low), surges and heat with total structural integrity. Providing cost effective sustainable cleanliness levels.

iFleet Depth filtration

IFleet Depth Filtration is remarkable as it conforms to all the characteristics of filter performance criteria, i.e. low resistance to flow, fixed high structural integrity, pore construction with non-collapse strength and reliable performance with vast dirt holding capacity and no chemical (water) sensitivity .The effective filter life span is remarkable, setting new standards in durability.

IFleet Depth filter media is the result of years of research and development. The main criteria was to develop a micron depth filter media, which was not sensitive to water and had structural integrity to enable Beta stability.The result is a media that outperforms current market standards and is totally unique. Therefore we patented it.

Lowering contamination levels upstream at bouser and downstream on the fiscal vehicle improves physical wear patterns and extends lifecycles vastly. Especially as most vehicle’s filter’s final filtration ability is only in excess of 5-micron particle size, based on an absolute rating utilising surface filtration with limited dirt holding capacity

Why is filtering so critical? Why is fuel systems the number one contributor to engine failures? Contamination in diesel has a direct negative impact on lubricity and increases wear patterns exponentially or directly cause component failure. Some of the clearances in engines can be as tight as 2 Micron in injectors at pressures of 1800 – 3500 bar; and in the combustion chambers there is a ring gap of 0.09-0.12 mm or 90-120 micron at pressures up to 230-280 bars. Contamination in the fuel can adversely affect the performance and reliability of the combustion components and this will affect the overall efficiencies (carbon generation, heat, oil, emissions and fuel), lifecycles and failures.

The more contamination is excluded from entering the fuel and filtered upstream the more reliable and effective the down stream filters can “cope” with contamination

Coagulation and separation
Being a depth media of micron level it separates the clogging of hydrocarbons and thereby reverses the natural deterioration process (agglomerations) by physically splitting all clots. As diesel deteriorates, this will result in improved oxidization of fuel and therefore improve the combustion process.

Bouser iFleet Depth micron filtration
  Various bouser filter sizes to deal with pump volumes and contamination levels: one, three or six elements.  
  Filtration media with both surface and depth filtration properties. Read filtration performance criteria  
  Differential pressure INCREASES is a direct indicator of bouser cleanliness levels or filter cartage replacement  
  Physical inspection of the “bricks and stones” on the filter media, but it is the particles size inside the media that is crucial to retain.
Currently bouser filtration is limited or non-existent. All contamination is pumped onto the vehicle for onboard filters to “deal” with. The OEM filters have an efficiency factor and holding capacity of an absolute rating and are not a depth filters. It is a fact that the less “dirt “ a filter has to handle, the more efficient and higher the integrity of those filters.

Kerb side pumps can also be fitted economically with depth filtration due to the low resistance of flow and high dirt holding capacity

Filter unit range:

  1. One unit – light volumes
  2. Three unit –medium volumes
  3. Six unit - heavy volumes
  4. Refill depth media elements and replacement seals

On-Line Cleanliness Monitoring Devices provided –mini mesh sampling points: at any time the sustainable cleanliness levels can be monitored by simply sampling before and after ceramic filter.

We cost effectively address the entire contamination blueprint on various levels and set new standards!

Ceramic spin-on depth filtration filters
Ceramic spin-on filters ideal for: water, gas, air and liquid cleanliness levels

Depth filtration has changed the way you can clean your fuel for maximum performance, better emissions and less breakdowns, by simply using ceramic filter media. We have been able to restore the fuel cleanliness standards by which engine manufacturers have designed the new age diesel motor. Depth filters not only filter out much finer particles of contamination, but also a great deal more and keeps them locked in, ensuring that no abrasive particles can pass through to your injectors and injector pump thereby causing severe damage, which in turn increases fuel costs, break- downs, down time and pollution. Ceramic filter media are highly cost effective due to the longer service intervals.

Ceramic creates minimal pressure drop, minimal loss of flow; is compatible with all fluids, pressure, surges, vibrations, temperatures and flow rates. With filtration technologies that can even be fitted on the suction side of the pump, without the danger of causing pump cavitations.

Sinthetic Media

Porosity - 33-iFleet-chrome ceramic

Ideal for small home bases, farmer’s tanks 2200ltr, mobile tanks/bouser, vehicles, machineries, construction equipment and especially for rental equipment.

Ceramic setting a new benchmark in sustainable cleanliness levels through cost effective depth filtration without the associated complications of cellulose depth media

Fuel supplier delivering Diesel

Particle contamination during a normal fuel tanker delivery (top view)–with in SABS specification of 25 mg per kilogram: That is 25 g per 1000 litre or 25 kg per 1 000 000 litre.
Where did the dirt go? (top right)
Can’t filter contamination from Drop fills (bottom right)

The particle contamination combined with water contamination through the breathers, together with a dirty fuel bouser is a winning formula for exacerbated fuel deterioration. This process is totally preventable.

See iFleet fuel kidney recirculating filtration systems for fuel bowsers and genset (link)

Adding fuel to the fire is the way bousers are filtered with virtually no sustainable cleanliness levels.

Fact: The fuel systems of most diesel engines are equipped with water separators and two-stage fuel filters. Machine manufacturers add these or other fuel filtering systems to their equipment. Such devices will handle small amounts of contamination, but continued or excessive contamination of the fuel system will result in accelerated wear of the engine and the fuel system components.

The importance of sustainable upstream filtration can not be over dramatized. To lower total contamination levels throughout the whole fuel blueprint, is fundamentally critical to lowering high contamination levels before it reaches /hits OEM filters. This is of vital importance as excessive contamination levels directly impact on the filter’s efficiency and dirtholding capacity and can lead to diminished effectiveness or total failure of the filter media .ASK your own OEM national service managers.

Are you only “filtering” or do you have sustainable cleanliness levels?

  Ceramic Media Ensures Sustainable Cleanness Levels                                    
Flow = Cleanness Level Obtained (All our filters fitted with mini-mesh sampling points)

This is not achieving Sustainable cleanliness levels due to limited dirt holding capacity of the spin-on filter (+/_ 160 g), surges and filter media “break” as the differential pressure across the filter increases due to the large numbers of particles blocking and caking onto the synthetic filter media, being forced through due to unloading, media migration and channelling.

This results in large numbers of particles being forced through or simply flowing through unhindered through the filter. The official SABS diesel spec allows for 25 mg per kilogram, that is an equivalent of 25 g per 1000 ltr. How long can fibre or even the premium nanofiber synthetic hydraulic oil filters last in bulk diesel filtration applications or even in multiple combinations? Premium filters have a dirtholding capacity of only +/- 160 g max. The maths simply doesn’t work.
Diesel fuel contamination levels vary dramatically from area to area and week to week.
Currently most spin-on filters are simply being changed at 3 month intervals, ignoring cleanliness levels, surges or bad drops.
Were cleanliness levels over the period Sustainable? Physical contamination tests provide the answer.

Important: Note if a wax- based water absorption media is used, its efficiency is adversely affected by particle contamination .A direct drop in efficiency of water removal is problematic, especially in modern engines. The situation is exacerbated if there are no air breathers installed on the bouser or water levels are not being monitored or if a kidney system has not been installed.

Ceramic filter media can’t break. It retains dirt (silica and metal particles) , therefore sustainable cleanliness levels are now cost effectively obtainable for large fuel volumes. Ceramic filter media are available in spin-on or custom filter banks.

Oil companies.
It is a misconception to expect oil companies to provide sustainable cleanliness levels on your bouser, at an on cost to their current negotiated fuel margins , where these costs were not conceived during original negotiations.
They can provide this service if your pay more per litre of fuel, as the monitory recourses will then be available and they’ll be able to outsource these functions to third parties ,so you loose direct control anyway at additional cost. During the negotiation process negotiate price, quality and service levels. Fact: effective sustainable filtration and contamination blueprints come at an additional cost on the filtration budget but have an exponential substantial reduction in capital replacement costs, lifecycle maintenance, breakdowns, lost of production, hire costs and even fuel consumption .etc

The current market trend is for the fuel user to own their own fuel site and if he is serious about contamination to effectively address it directly to his own cleanliness requirements.

Areas where ceramic filtration are setting new bench marks in sustainable cleanliness levels by setting new industry standards

  • Any fuel bowsers- mining companies, truck fleets, farmers, construction companies.
  • Oil and fuel breathers as the hydrocarbon vapour does not effect the filter media (water and Contamination)
  • Ceramic spin-on filters (water, gas, air and liquids)
  • Low cost kidney filtration systems for fuel bouser and gensec’s
  • Forecourts cleanliness levels
  • Refineries, gantry and depots (10 000 Ltr @10bar per 60 sec= 167 ltr /sec - no problem)
  • Air emissions –industrial towers /stacks

Coagulation and separation

Being a depth media of micron level it separates the clogging of hydrocarbons and thereby reverses the natural deterioration process (agglomerations) by physically splitting all clots. As diesel deteriorates, this will result in improved oxidization of fuel and therefore improve the combustion process

Separating clogging of hydrocarbons and thereby reversing the natural deterioration process

The effects of and process by which diesel fuel "ages" in storage are well documented in the literature. The agglomeration of fuel particles is promoted by the presence of contaminants in the fuel. This clustering of fuel inhibits combustion, leading to inefficient burning and premature filter clogging.

The iFleet ceramic filter offers a solution to this problem. The typical iFleet filter wall thickness of 10mm offers true "depth" filtration capability coupled with high non -flexible mechanical strength.

Fuel "clusters" impacting upon the ceramic matrix tend to disintegrate under the impact of collision and flow pressure. The result is that the ceramic filter aids in reversal of the deteriorating effects of fuel ageing by reducing cluster size through mechanical action.

It is to be noted that this action is effected upon 100% of the fuel delivered to the engine, as all fuel must,through necessity, flow through the ceramic filter media.

The ceramic filter is a depth media of sub 5-micron capability which assists in the separation of clotted hydrocarbons. This represents a reversal of the natural process of agglomeration by physically splitting all clots. This will result in improved oxidization of fuel leading to more efficient combustion.

These are direct quotes from www.deep.org

This is the result of years and millions of dollars of studies by the mining industry, OEM’s, health departments and unions. Read their website it is highly informative

www.deep.org reports on emissions in mines read full report in literature

Injection Pump or Injector Failure:

“The fuel injection system is the most complex of all engine systems to maintain. The components are precision engineered with extremely close tolerances. For this reason the basics of maintenance and especially cleanliness are the most important considerations here”

“This problem is usually associated with fuel contamination and is the most expensive to correct. This type of failure will normally result in noticeable performance loss. The engine will be hard to start, will lack power, and have poor acceleration. The engine will suffer from excessive fuel consumption and increased emissions; the most noticeable effect will be a rapid increase in black smoke and CO emissions. Operation under such faulty conditions could lead to engine overheating, and eventually total engine failure.”

“Examine the filters that are being used and the criteria used for selecting them. Price is absolutely NOT the criteria by which filters should be selected for underground diesel engines. Performance and protection are all that matters here. Filters should be whenever possible and should not pass particles larger than 5 microns.

“Use a filtered vent on the fuel tank. An open vent draws dirt continuously while the engine is drawing fuel. This
puts unnecessary reliance on the fuel filters to catch this dirt. The tank breather element should be finer than 5

“Even if the best quality fuel is used, it will become contaminated if not handled and stored properly.
Contamination with moisture, rain water leaking into drums, condensation forming inside the fuel tanks, dust and
dirt (improper storage in dusty areas), use of contaminated fuel transfer pumps, hoses, tanks, or mixing with other
fluids such as lubricants must be prevented.”

“The fuel systems of most diesel engines are equipped with water separators and two-stage fuel filters. Machine
manufacturers add these or other fuel filtering systems to their equipment. Such devices will handle small amounts
of contamination, but continued or excessive contamination of the fuel system will result in accelerated wear of the
engine and the fuel system components”

- Extracts from www.deep.org literature.

Diesel emissions- Mechanics maintenance manual: www.deep.org   NEW

Atmospheric iFleet DEPTH micron breather -air ventilation on bouser (particle and water)

The atmospheric breather is air dirt and water filter/breather for use on the tank vent of diesel fuel storage tanks both above and below ground. The particle filter media is the iFleet Depth micron filter along with a desiccant, which removes moisture from the air going in and out of your tank. By replacing your current tank vent (which keeps out only bricks and stones) on your diesel fuel storage tank with the. iFleet Breather, you virtually eliminate the primary source of dirt and water contamination in your fuel.

Diesel fuel is like a magnet for both dirt and water. By removing the water, you also eliminate the life source for anerobic bacteria, as well as those organisms that need water to live. Unfortunately the by-product of bacteria and algae inside the tank, is that they eat the inside surface of the fuel tank, leading to tank failure and environmental problems.

The iFleet Breather stops this particle contamination from entering your fuel system. This allows for the down stream bouser and on board vehicle filtration to be more effective and efficient by simply having to contend with less volumes of contamination, thus directly effecting dirt holding capacity and filter media integrity down stream.

The breather generally lasts 6 months or longer depending on climatic conditions and the level of airborne contamination. The unit will clearly indicate that it needs to be changed by changing colour from white to pink; alternatively it should at least be changed once a year.
The complete unit is easily removable and a service kit is available.

The breather is designed for use on all diesel fuel storage tanks and has a flow rating of 500 Liters per minute. The tank breather is effective and inexpensive.

It is much easier and less costly to change air breathers and keep the fuel clean to start with than to change fuel filters or clean fuel bousers, especially when a truck is hundreds of miles from home!!

Three models

  1. Straight fit – bouser with fuel drop filling
  2. Two ventilation valve- pumped into fuel bouser
  3. Refill kit – both filter and water media

Atmospheric iFleet DEPTH micron breather -air ventilation on vehicle (particle and water)

Fuel tank breather pipes open to atmosphere “suck“ up dirt and water vapor
equal to suction power of fuel flow to engine.

The patented designs and media help to efficiently prevent airborne dirt and water contamination from entering tanks.

They are designed to prevent water and contaminants from entering fluid reservoirs as differential pressures occur through thermal expansion, contraction of the fluid and mostly during driving. They directly reduce particle and water-contamination, help provide longer filter life, and reduce equipment wear.

Currently in the market most of these breathers are without any filtration, both particle and water. As the truck drives the fuel is sucked from the tank that creates a suction power of air through the breather pipe and all the dirt dust partials are then sucked into the tank through the breather pipe. This problem is exacerbated as these breather pipes are virtually always behind the wheels, which creates a dust cloud in conjunction with the truck’s motion. Water vapour is also sucked into the tank and during the night these vapours condense into water inside the tank.

It is recommended that the filters be replaced on a yearly basis or in mining or coastal regions that they be replaced every six months. The complete unit is simply removed and discarded.

Breather Filters are powerful preventive maintenance tools designed to protect virtually all types of industrial and commercial equipment that contain hydrocarbon and other non-aqueous fluids.

The micron breather is incredibly effective for standby generator tanks where fuel resides for long periods and deteriorates rapidly; creating fuel filter blockages that will shut down a standby generator in a short time of operation.

The micron tank breather is inexpensive insurance for your diesel engine, standby diesel generator, or any product you want to keep clean and dry. It is much easier and less costly to change air breathers and keep the fuel clean to start with than to change fuel filters.

iFleet DEPTH micron filtration on truck fuel line


We are in the process of testing with OEM’s and large fleet owners. The product release is scheduled for the 2nd quarter 2008.
Due to low resistance to flow, this filter can fit on the suction side, without causing any cavitations in the fuel system.

Benefits of Filtration

Adding the above innovative filter range to your current operation is a marginal cost that is easily compensated for by the direct higher downstream cleanliness levels and impact on costs, especially component failure and wear. The earlier contamination is combated the lower the downstream volumes will be and the less the filters will have to cope with.

Breather filtration is an excellent way to prevent particle and water contamination from entering into the fuel, so that it doesn’t have to be filtered down stream or cause damage downstream.

Lubricity is directly negatively affected by particle and water contamination and lubricity with less contaminants increases lifecycles, improves efficiencies and prevents premature failure..

Carbon is lowered due to improved combustion, thanks to less wear and extended efficiency lifecycle.

These custom designed initial filters ensure a reduction in down time and maintenance costs, while improving on secondary filter life, reliability and equipment availability.

Water filter range to be released mid 2008, these filters will be very economical as they won’t require cartilage replacements and they automatically “dump” free water. It will also assist in filtering “brick” particles.

Particle contamination is“ liquid sandpaper” and dirt larger than 0.7 micron and smaller than 5 micron is ”crusher stones” in a modern engine.

Lower contamination levels upstream at bouser and downstream on the fiscal vehicle, improve physical wear patterns and directly extend lifecycles.

Test done by E.C. Fitch on oil contamination levels. This illustrates the direct correlation between cleanliness levels and efficiency lifecycles. By changing ISO level standards, we increased pump life from 2 > 14 years.
Education on filtration and contamination control fundamentals is just as important as the type of component or system to buy. This leaves us to ask the main question: What does the end user want his filtration systems to accomplish at the end of the day? Cost vs. benefits?

Why is filtering so critical? Why is fuel systems the number one contributor to engine failures? Contamination in diesel is nothing more than “liquid sandpaper “. It has a direct negative impact on lubricity and increases wear patterns exponentially or directly cause component failure. Some of the clearances in engines can be as tight as 2 Micron in injectors at pressures of 1800 – 3500 bar; in the combustion chambers there is a ring gap clearance of 0.09-0.12 mm or 90-120 micron at pressures up to 230-280 bars. Contamination in the fuel can adversely affect the performance and reliability of the combustion components and this will affect the overall efficiencies (carbon generation, heat, oil, emissions and fuel), lifecycles and failures.

The Role of the Filter
To appreciate the importance of the filter in the management of the system, consider the primary function of the filter: It has to protect the components from the damaging, critical clearance-sized particles (particles that can penetrate and interfere with the working clearances of components). The filter should control the fluid cleanliness to a level that is equal to the performance, life and reliability of the system required by the user. It should allow fluid to pass through at the given flow with the minimum pressure drop (DP) to minimize stress and energy losses.
A filter must control the levels of all contaminant particles at and above the size critical to its operating system. If the filter fails to provide the necessary control of damaging-sized particles, then their presence in the system will lead to a substantial increase in the number of particles generated within the system through a chain reaction of wear. Particles entering component working clearances will become work hardened and produce more wear particles. This makes the capture of these particles, by the filter, essential to sustain the good health of the system.

Filter performance Criteria

Reliable Performance: Absolute removal of solids from fluid streams to any micron size specified.

High Integrity: Fixed Pore Construction prevents seized particles from being released back into the liquid stream during flow or pressure surges.

Resistance to flow or differential pressures: shows how pressure drops across the filter or how much resistance to flow the filter imparts to the system. This resistance has a direct bearing on filter life

Collapse Strength: is the minimum acceptable differential pressure at which structural failure of the filter element. This is serious because unfiltered fluid can be routed back into the system.

Structural integrity: This ensure that the filter media does not leak due to holes or channeling (where the media simply form channels or collapse) This is serious because unfiltered fluid can simple flow thru the media.

Capacity /Efficiency: How much contaminant the filter will retain and the efficiency of the filter is removing the contaminant.

Longer Life and Lower Costs: High surface area results in high dirt holding capacity and long element life for lower net operating costs

Chemical Capability: This iFleet depth media is compatible with Hydrocarbons and is a media that water has no negative effect of any nature what so ever on. It can even filter 100% water. Most depth filter media are highly sensitive and block with water retention even more so than with particles and shed particles or fibers.

The perfect filter would have no pressure drop, hold an unlimited amount of dirt, be small enough to fit anywhere in a system, give great ISO cleanliness codes, have high capture efficiency and cost nothing. Obviously this combination cannot exist, and the pursuit of the perfect compromise has always been the challenge for filter manufacturers.
For many years, filtration companies have been trying to educate end users on why filtration is important and how it helps the end user protect his equipment, save him money in the long run, or both. Many end users understand that there are often trade offs to lower micron rating and higher capture efficiencies of filters.

IFleet Depth filters

Depth filtration is closer to the perfect filter as it conforms closer to filter performance criteria. The effective repeatedly micron beta rating is substantially higher than surface filtration and the ultra important beta stability (see ref) uncompromised with our filter media. Therefore capable of continually removing micron contaminant at higher efficiency with vast increase in contaminant holding capacity

Surface Filtration Depth Filtration

Surface Filtration

Contamination particles make a permeable cake on the surface of the Media, forming a precoat layer that actually improves the apparent efficiency of the filter over the life cycle
Semi-solids glaze-over the surface of the media, causing short life

Surface filtration depends on the availability of a large surface area of porous screening media to trap contaminants. Among the different surface filtration media are:
Wire screen refills
Paper as found in spin-on filters
High Density cellulose acetate media
These filters rely on “surface loading” to trap contaminants and may not have enough surface area in the size filter to provide sufficient protection
Contaminants smaller than the rated pore size may pass through the media.

Depth Filtration

Both hard and soft contaminants penetrate into the depth media. Captures contaminants within its structure, as opposed to on the surface. Allowing for long life with minimal increase in pressure drop
Depth filtration – the General preferred technology – uses a relatively large volume of porous filtering media to capture contaminants at various depths deep within the filter element as the fuel and oil passes through. Depth filters featuring this type of construction provide maximum contaminant loading and long service life with a greater filter efficency over a variety of particle sizes.
Semi-solid contaminants will penetrate the media and not glaze-over the surface as per surface filtration.

A Combination

“iFleet depth media “ is a combination of both Surface and Depth filtration, as it possesses criteria of both filtrations to create an exceptional Beta Stability filter media

Filter Selection

Due to the complexity of filter ratings and nomenclature this is the most difficult process of all. Filters are rated in a number of ways by manufacturers; the three most common being nominal rating, absolute rating and beta rating.

Nominal Rating
A nominal rating is an arbitrary micrometer value indicated by the filter manufacturer. A nominal rating captures approximately 80% of the particles larger than the rating.

Absolute Rating
An absolute rating is the diameter of the largest solid spherical particle that will pass through a filter under specified conditions. This is an indication of the largest opening in the filter element. A filter with an absolute rating removes all the particles larger than the rating. Captures approximately 94% of the particles larger than the rating.

Beta Rating
While the nominal and absolute ratings are not supported by industry standards, the Beta rating comes from the Multipass Method for Evaluating Filtration Performance of a Fine Filter Element.

Calculation of Beta Ratios
Beta Ratios for filter elements are determined during the multi-pass test as outlined above. Individual element manufacturers determine the Beta Ratio specification for their elements. Most manufacturers are currently using a minimum Beta Ratio of 200 for a particular micron rating.

A single multi-pass test is divided into many smaller time segments. During each of these counting periods, the number of particles of a specific size - size x - and greater upstream of the filter is totaled and the number of size x and greater particles downstream of the filter is totaled. The number of particles found upstream of the filter divided by the number of particles found downstream of the filter equals the beta value of the element at the given particle size during that counting period

Filter element efficiency for a particular micron rating is determined by the Beta Ratio for that micron rating. The calculation is Beta Ratio minus one divided by the Beta Ratio then multiplied by 100. For example, an element with a Beta Ratio of 200 for a particular micron rating has the following efficiency:

          • (200-1)/200 or
          • 99.5 percent efficient

Table 1 shows the Beta Ratio, corresponding efficiency and the number of particles that will pass to the downstream side of the element for each 100,000 particles seen at the upstream side of the element.

The good design intentions of the application design engineers are often overridden by the sometimes more powerful dictates of price and competition. System suppliers and purchasers often change the filter strategy by changing the filter size, micron rating and the number of filters. This is an easy way to lower the overall system price. The equipment user may then have to add filtration to achieve the required system performance after the system is purchased, installed and operating.

Beta Stability
Beta stability is the measure of how well a filter element is able to maintain its measured Beta Ratio at pressure drops beyond the limits of the normal operating range. For example, beta 200 stability = 210 psid, means that the Beta Ratio for the rated micron size will not drop below beta 200 until it reaches 210 psid across the element.

A comprehensive filtration strategy designed to maintain the proper target cleanliness for the system can substantially reduce contamination-related failures. Selecting filter elements is a serious undertaking because achieving and maintaining clean fluid begins with filter selection. Filter elements must be compared based on the multi-pass test results. The Beta Ratio, or particle removal efficiency, is also a top selection criteria. Using elements with low Beta Ratios or poor efficiencies, even though the purchase price may be lower than elements with high Beta Ratios or good efficiencies, will inevitably result in much more costly system failures.

ISO 16889 Multi-Pass Test
The multi-pass test is a means of determining a filter’s performance; it measures the ability of the filter to remove particles of test dust over a wide particle-size range. This gives a series of Beta ratios for the filter as opposed to percentage efficiency. The Beta ratio is defined as:

bx (number of particles upstream >xµm)
(number of particles downstream > xµm)

Where x is the determining size of particle for the Beta ratio.

The need to remove particles consistently across a wide size range was recognized by the ISO Working Group responsible for updating the multi-pass filter test. The group also stipulated that detailing comprehensive performance data was necessary so users can make informed selections. The data that can be made available is as follows:

  • Pressure drop/flow,
  • Variation in particle removal abilities (Beta ratio) with size,
  • Variation in performance with time and differential pressure,
  • Weight of test contaminant retained by the filter,
  • Filtration ratings over a wide size range, and
  • Filtration performance over a wide range of particle sizes.
  • Fleet depth filtration has shown outstanding results in all of these characteristics.

Advantage of iFleet Depth media over “Paper” depth filtration media

  • Paper media have a higher resistance to flow, due to the inherent nature of the media
  • Paper media have no media migration (shedding)
  • The iFleet Depth media has no water retention and will not block with water. Diesel is hydroscopic with free and suspended water
  • The IFleet Depth media has no channel formation even as pressure increases due to caking and water retention
  • The iFleet Depth media has no contamination particulate unloading at increased differential pressures and through “formed” channels
  • Paper media have shorter life cycles

Overall the iFleet media is more compliant to the Filter performance Criteria than the“Paper” media is.

A1 jet fuel with visible sub 5-micron contamination as sampled from local airport

The nett effect is that the fuel system and especially the fuel injectors are impacted on negatively across a broad spectrum. These include ncreased injector wear or injector failure, increased combustion heat, soot formation due to poor burning, oil life, increased emissions and fuel consumption.

Depth filtration is a proven solution for collection of sub micron contamination

Water sensitive: As diesel is hydroscopic with free water and water in suspension, even at refinery level, these filters have a limited life span before they water block. Usually fitted after the fuel pump otherwise cavitations are caused in the fuel line and the fuel pressure is required to form bypass channels to maintain fuel flow.

Medium collapse: Most current sub 5 micron filters also have the possibility of filter medium collapse that causes the collected dirt to storm rush the injectors all at once, with a detrimental "sand blast" impact.

Short Filter life: Due to particle quantity, the filter holding capacity is limited


Note: Direct correlation between engine advancement and sensitive to water and particle contamination.

South Africa has higher dirt levels consisting of smaller particles

This turns particle contamination into “ liquid sandpaper” and dirt larger than 0.7 micron
and smaller than 5 micron into crusher stones.

Utilizing ceramic filtration media in fuels is setting a new benchmark

Patent Title [Filter]: Ceramic media -a liquid hydrocarbon filter
Patent Title [Breathers]: Ceramic & desicant hydrocarbon air breather

Lean and Green - Patric Swan - Road Ahead   NEW
Dirt in diesel: Raymond Abrams, Fuel Specialist, Shell SA
Dihydrogen oxide threat to diesel engines

Eric Ringholm, HYDAC Technology Corporation, "Understanding Filter Beta Ratios". Practicing Oil Analysis Magazine. January 2004

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